Is Alcohol A Base?

Is Alcohol A Base
Alcohol, which is sometimes referred to scientifically as ethanol, is neither an acid nor a base. However, it can act as either, according to the aim of the reaction and the materials it is combined with.

Is alcohol an alkaline or base?

Acid and Base:

Acid is a chemical that when dissolved in water produces the Hydrogen ion. It raises the Hydrogen ion concentration in the solution.The base is a chemical that dissolves in an aqueous solution and produces the hydroxide ion. The solution has a high concentration of Hydroxide ions.

Alcohols:

An organic molecule with a hydroxyl group attached to a carbon atom is known as alcohol.It is neither acidic nor basic when dissolved in water because it does neither form Hydrogen ion nor Hydroxide ion in solution. It is neither a basic nor an acid but it is amphoteric in nature because depending on what it is coupled with and the reaction we want to achieve, it can work as either.

Therefore, Alcohol is neither acid nor base. –

What pH is alcohol?

ACIDITY OF DRINKS AND YOUR TEETH Is Alcohol A Base Now that it’s getting warmer it’s even more important to stay hydrated. We would like to share with you acid levels of popular drinks and damage it can cause to your teeth. Not only does drinking high level of acidic drinks cause damage to teeth they also can cause damage to your digestive system.

Even if sugar free a lot of these drinks can also contribute weight gain. Let’s understand ph, this is the number value that we measure liquid to determine if it’s acidic or basic. Any value below 7 is considered acidic and anything above 7 is basic with water being neutral at 7. Each increase in numerical value, the acid intensity increases 10-times.

For example if a beverage has a ph of 2 or lemon juice ends up being 10 times more acidic than a grapefruit juice at a ph of 3 and 100 times more acidic than tomato juice with ph of 4. Each change in ph makes a huge difference! Energy Drinks Not only is it high sugar content and citric acid pH that can be as low as 1.5.

With the high sugar content and acidity not only does it cause erosion but it also promotes teeth decay. This includes you Red Bull and Rock Star. Rock star should definitely be avoided it has a ph of 1.5 and to put that in perspective car battery is at 1. Stomach acid ranges from 1-3. Soda Soda is one of the most acidic drinks out there.

Not only acidic, but also high in sugar, causing even more damage to your teeth. Bacteria in the mouth turn excess sugar into acid that wears down tooth enamel. Most sodas have a pH of 3 or lower which is extremely damaging to teeth overtime. Fruit Juices Although most people would think fruit juices are healthy, they are actually highly acidic and contain a lot of sugar.

Most fruit juices on grocery store shelves have added sugar, and very little actual fruit fruit juice. Eating whole fruits are better for your teeth and overall health. Most fruit juices have a pH lower than 3. Also consider making your own juice that you can blend with vegetables to make and even healthier options.

Great vegetable to blend are carrots, kale and other leafy greens. Sports Drinks Sports drinks, such as Gatorade and Powerade, have significant negative effects on your teeth. Although they help in re-hydration, they are also highly acidic and can cause tooth enamel to wear down.

  • Most sports drinks have a pH of 3 and lower, and also contain high levels of sugar, which can lead to more cavities and tooth decay.
  • Alcohol Alcoholic beverages have high acidic levels and are damaging to tooth enamel.
  • Wine, beer, and hard liquor all have a pH balance of around 4 and lower.
  • Wine is more acidic than beer, with sweet wines being the most acidic.

Alcohol can be especially damaging when paired with other acidic drinks, such as pop and fruit juices. Coffee Coffee is another drink that you might drink daily that could be damaging your teeth. Not only does coffee cause discoloration, coffee has acidic levels that can lead to tooth decay.

Is an alcohol an acid?

Acidity of alcohols: formation of alkoxides – Alcohols are weak acids. The most acidic simple alcohols (methanol and ethanol) are about as acidic as water, and most other alcohols are somewhat less acidic. A strong base can deprotonate an alcohol to yield an alkoxide ion (R―O − ). Alkoxides can be useful reagents. For example, the most common synthesis of ethers involves the attack of an alkoxide ion on an alkyl halide. This method is called Williamson ether synthesis ( see ether ). Leroy G. Wade

Are alcohols neutral?

Teaching notes – Both alcohols are fully miscible with water. This is because the –OH groups hydrogen bond with the water. Higher alcohols are less soluble since the hydrocarbon chain starts to break an appreciable number of hydrogen bonds in water. The pH of both alcohols will show as neutral.

Note that, if indicator solution is used, ethanol at least will give an acid colour. This is because ethanol is the solvent used to prepare the indicator solution, and diluting the dyes puts the mixture out of balance. The RO – anion is very unstable in aqueous solution, so virtually none of the reaction ROH + H 2 O ↔ RO – + H 3 O + occurs.

Both alcohols will burn with a fairly clean, blue flame. C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 → 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O C 3 H 7 OH + 4½O 2 → 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O Both alcohols will fizz with sodium to form hydrogen. C 2 H 5 OH + Na → C 2 H 5 ONa (sodium ethoxide) + ½H 2 C 3 H 7 OH + Na → C 3 H 7 ONa (sodium propoxide) + ½H 2 Both alcohols are oxidised to aldehydes, which have a sour but fruity smell.

C 2 H 5 OH + → CH 3 CHO (ethanal) + H 2 O C 3 H 7 OH + → CH 3 CH 2 CHO (propanal) + H 2 O These experiments show that alcohols react similarly in all these reactions. They make clear the concept of functional group in organic chemistry. The –OH functional group behaves in the same way whether it is attached to C 2 H 5 or C 3 H 7,

Further oxidation turns primary alcohols into acids, while secondary alcohols are only oxidised to ketones under these conditions. However, tertiary alcohols are not oxidised under these conditions but can be oxidised by stronger oxidising agents, resulting in C–C bond breaking.

Is vodka acidic or basic?

High pH – Non Acidic – The pH scale, running from 0 to 14, measures how acidic or basic a substance is, with a pH of 7 being neutral. Most vodkas tend to have a pH of 4, which is on the acidic side; FIX High Alkaline Vodka’s pH is higher than 8, so it’s more on the basic side.

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Is an alcohol a strong or weak base?

Acid-Base Reactions Of Alcohols Alcohols are mild acids. Typical aliphatic (i.e. ” Alkyl An alkane missing a hydrogen. A very common substituent in organic chemistry. ” href=”https://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/glossary/alkyl/” data-mobile-support=”0″ data-gt-translate-attributes=””>alkyl “) alcohols such as ethanol, isopropanol, and t -butanol have a pK a of about 16-18, making them slightly more acidic than water.

  • Alcohols that are in conjugation with a pi bond or aromatic ring will be more acidic since the Conjugate Base The species that remains when a proton (H+) is removed from an acid, H–A. The conjugate base of H<sub>2</sub>O is HO(-). The stability of the conjugate base is the major factor determining the acidity of a molecule. About 60 orders of magnitude separate the acidity of the strongest acids (e.g. H-I) from the weakest (e.g. H-CH<sub>3</sub>) which reflects the much greater stability of I(-) compared to CH<sub>3</sub>(-). ” href=”https://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/glossary/conjugate-base/” data-mobile-support=”0″ data-gt-translate-attributes=””>conjugate base is resonance-stabilized. One key example is phenol (C 6 H 5 OH). (pK a = 10).
  • Nearby electron-withdrawing groups will stabilize the negative charge of the Conjugate Base The species that remains when a proton (H+) is removed from an acid, H–A. The conjugate base of H<sub>2</sub>O is HO(-). The stability of the conjugate base is the major factor determining the acidity of a molecule. About 60 orders of magnitude separate the acidity of the strongest acids (e.g. H-I) from the weakest (e.g. H-CH<sub>3</sub>) which reflects the much greater stability of I(-) compared to CH<sub>3</sub>(-). ” href=”https://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/glossary/conjugate-base/” data-mobile-support=”0″ data-gt-translate-attributes=””>conjugate base through inductive effects. For example, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (pK a = 12) is considerably more acidic than ethanol (pK a = 16).

Alcohols are also weak bases, They can react with strong acids to give oxonium ions which have a pK a of about -2. One of the keys to the reactions of alcohols as we go forward is that the Conjugate Acid The species obtained when a molecule gains a proton, H+. The conjugate acid of water is H<sub>3</sub>O+. The opposite of a conjugate base, which is obtained through the loss of a proton, H+. ” href=”https://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/glossary/conjugate-acid/” data-mobile-support=”0″ data-gt-translate-attributes=””>conjugate acid is a better Leaving group The departing group in a substitution or elimination reaction. Good leaving groups tend to be weak bases. Sometimes called a nucleofuge. ” href=”https://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/glossary/leaving-group/” data-mobile-support=”0″ data-gt-translate-attributes=””>leaving group and the Conjugate Base The species that remains when a proton (H+) is removed from an acid, H–A. The conjugate base of H<sub>2</sub>O is HO(-). The stability of the conjugate base is the major factor determining the acidity of a molecule. About 60 orders of magnitude separate the acidity of the strongest acids (e.g. H-I) from the weakest (e.g. H-CH<sub>3</sub>) which reflects the much greater stability of I(-) compared to CH<sub>3</sub>(-). ” href=”https://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/glossary/conjugate-base/” data-mobile-support=”0″ data-gt-translate-attributes=””>conjugate base is a better Nucleophile A <strong>nucleophile</strong> is a species that can form a bond through the donation of a pair of electrons. The pair of electrons can be from a lone pair, a pi bond, or in certain cases, a sigma bond.All nucleophiles are Lewis bases.The term "nucleophile" is generally used to describe any species forming a bond with any atom other than H+. When a nucleophile is forming a bond with H+, we generally describe it as a "base".Many reactions of nucleophiles are irreversible. The relative strength of nucleophiles tends to be measured by reaction <strong>rate</strong>. This is in contrast to basicity, which is generally measured according to the position of an acid-base equilibrium.Nucleophilicity is also more sensitive to steric effects than are acid-base reactions. ” href=”https://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/glossary/nucleophile/” data-mobile-support=”0″ data-gt-translate-attributes=””>nucleophile, Table of Contents

  1. Four Key Points To Review About Acid-Base Reactions
  2. Favorable and Unfavorable Acid-Base Reactions of Alcohols (2 Examples)
  3. Reviewing The Key Factors Which Determine Acidity
  4. Applying These Factors To The Acidity of Alcohols
  5. A Practice Question
  6. Summary: Acidity and Basicity of Alcohols
  7. Quiz Yourself!

Why alcohol is acid or a base?

Alcohol can act as both an acid and a base, similar to water. Alcohols are slightly weaker acids than water but still react with strong bases such as sodium hydride and metals such as sodium. However, the oxygen atom makes alcohol a weaker base in the presence of strong acid-like sulfuric acid –

Is beer acidic or basic?

The Oxford Companion to Beer Definition of acidity The Oxford Companion to Beer definition of Acidity is a term referring to sour, tangy, or tart flavors derived from organic acids. Technically, acidity is the state of being acid—having the properties of an acid or the extent to which a solution is acid.

See, Acidity relates to the degree of sharpness of the taste of beer. Many organic acids and carbonic acid (carbon dioxide gas), when dissolved in beer, determine the acidity level. Of relevance to the consumer, acidity is detected via taste and can also be determined by titration against a standard base.

When beer is analyzed in a laboratory, the acidity (percentage acid in a sample) is expressed as if all the acidity were present as lactic acid, but this is done for convenience; the acidity figure actually includes any acid present following degassing to eliminate carbon dioxide.

See, Almost all drinks that are considered refreshing and “drinkable” contain some notable acidity as part of a balance against sweet elements. The total concentration of “acidity” is typically described in the literature as 220–500 parts per million (ppm), adding to the pleasing tartness of beer. However, this seems rather low, because measurements of 0.1% to 0.3% acidity (expressed as lactic) are typical in beer, which would calculate out to 1000 to 3000 ppm.

All-malt worts produce higher amounts of acidity in beer than do malt-adjunct worts. It is a generally assumed rule of thumb that most typical malt-adjunct beers will show about 0.1% acidity and all-malt beers closer to 0.2%. Light beers can be as low as about 0.07% acidity (or 700 ppm).

Beer is thus slightly acidic, with 100% barley malt lager beers having a pH in the range 4.00–5.00. Ales vary a little more, typically pH 3.00–6.00. Sour beer styles such as Belgian lambic, Berliner Weisse, and the new generation of craft-brewed sour ales can get as low as pH 3.30. Although the acidity level is largely driven by organic acids, the carbonation level also lends to the acidity content of these beer styles.

See, Abnormally high acidity can be an indication of bacterial infection of wort and/or beer. Microbial contamination issues (lactobacillus strains, for example) leading to abnormal acidity are usually perceived by the brewer or consumer before any testing would show the defect.

See, Acidity in beer actually helps protect it because many pathogenic and food-spoilage microorganisms are unable to grow in high-acid (low-pH) environments. To some extent the acidic nature of beer, along with the carbon dioxide (carbonic acid acidity), lack of oxygen, and the presence of significant amounts of alcohol, has helped make beer a safe, potable beverage throughout history.

See also,, and, Gary Spedding : The Oxford Companion to Beer Definition of acidity

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Is wine acidic or basic?

Understanding acidity in wine – Acids are one of in wine (the others are tannin, alcohol, and sweetness). Acidity gives a wine its tart and sour taste. Fundamentally speaking, all wines lie on the acidic side of the pH spectrum, and most range from 2.5 to about 4.5 pH (7 is neutral).

Why is alcohol weak base?

This is is because the oxygen in ethanol has lone electron pairs capable of accepting protons, and thus ethanol can act as a weak base.

Are alcohols a weak base?

Brainly User Brainly User Alcohols do not dissociate in to water rather they form Hydrogen bonding with other molecules as well as water molecules.As they do not give OH- ion so it is weak base.

Is Whiskey acidic or basic?

Is alcohol alkaline?

Drink pH Where it falls on the scale
vodka 6.0–7.0 slightly acidic to neutral
gin 3.0–6.0 acidic
rum 4.5–5.0 acidic
whiskey 3.68–4.78 acidic

Why is ethanol not a base?

(i) Ethanol (C2H5OH) is not a base. Explain why? (i) Ethanol (C2H5OH) is not a base. Explain why? (ii) Name the phenomenon occur, when small amount of acid is added to water. (i) Ethanol is not a base because it is not example of an organic compound, which have acidic nature. Dilution With addition of water, there is decrease in the concentration of H3O+ ions, per unit volume. : (i) Ethanol (C2H5OH) is not a base. Explain why?

Is Milk an acid or a base?

Cow’s milk – Milk — pasteurized, canned, or dry — is an acid-forming food. Its pH level is below neutral at about 6.7 to 6.9. This is because it contains lactic acid. Remember, though, that the exact pH level is less important than whether it’s acid-forming or alkaline-forming.

  1. Other dairy products like butter, hard cheeses, cottage cheese, and ice cream are also acid-forming.
  2. Yogurt and buttermilk are alkaline-forming foods despite having low pH levels between 4.4 and 4.8.
  3. The American College of Healthcare Sciences notes that raw milk is also an exception; it may be alkaline-forming.

However, it may not be safe to drink untreated milk. Milk doesn’t taste acidic. It’s even thought to be a remedy for acid reflux or heartburn. Milk may temporarily help soothe symptoms. This is because the fat in milk helps to coat the esophagus (food pipe) and stomach.

Are alcohols acidic than water?

Alcohols are, however, weaker acids than water. This can be illustrated by the reaction of water with an alkoxide. This reaction shows that water is a better proton donor (i.e., stronger acid) than alcohol.

Is coffee an acid or alkaline?

– In general, acidity is determined using the pH scale, which specifies how basic or acidic a water based solution is. The scale ranges from 0 to 14. Any solution registering from 0 to 7 on the scale is considered acidic, whereas a solution registering from 7 to 14 is considered basic ( 1 ).

Most coffee varieties are acidic, with an average pH value of 4.85 to 5.10 ( 2 ). Among the countless compounds in this beverage, the brewing process releases nine major acids that contribute to its unique flavor profile. Here are the nine major acids in coffee, listed from highest concentration to lowest: chlorogenic, quinic, citric, acetic, lactic, malic, phosphoric, linoleic, and palmitic ( 3 ).

Summary The brewing process releases acids from coffee beans, giving this beverage a pH of 4.85 to 5.10, which is considered acidic.

Are bananas alkaline?

Bananas. This low-acid fruit can help neutralize stomach acid by coating an irritated esophageal lining. And not only are bananas alkaline, they’re also rich in pectin — a soluble fiber that helps keeps food flowing nicely through the digestive tract. This can help you feel full longer, so you’re less likely to overeat

What pH is lemon?

Lemon juice in its natural state is acidic with a pH of about 2, but once metabolized it actually becomes alkaline with a pH well above 7.

What alcohol is a base?

Alcohol Bases 101: Malt, Spirit, & Wine With growing demand for new options, beverage innovators have reinvented the flavored ready-to-drink (RTD) alcoholic beverage, significantly improving taste and reputation. RTD alcoholic beverages have long used three common bases: malt, spirit, and wine. Is Alcohol A Base Malt is partially germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as “malting”. The grains are forced to begin germinating by soaking in water, then halted from germinating further by drying with hot air. This process breaks down complex sugars in malt, preparing it for fermentation.

Finally, during the brewing process, yeast metabolize these sugars producing alcohol as one of the byproducts. Beer and Flavored Malt Beverages (FMB) are the two most common malt-based beverages. FMBs are made using a malt base that has been stripped of all its malt characteristics. Malt base is the least expensive base to use when producing an alcoholic beverage, both in terms of raw material cost and finished product taxation.

However, this base is not known for its taste profile and can be difficult to mask its flavor during formulation. Spirit Base Is Alcohol A Base Spirit base is produced by the distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have gone through alcoholic fermentation. Distillation process purifies the liquid and removes diluting components for the purpose of increasing the proportion of alcohol content (measured as percent Alcohol by Volume (ABV)).

The most common types of spirits are Grain Neutral Spirits (GNS), Vodka, Gin, Tequila, Rum, and Whiskey. GNS is the most commonly used spirit base. It is pure grain alcohol that is highly concentrated and purified by repeated distillation. GNS typically contain 95% ABV (or 190-proof) produced from grains such as corn, wheat, rye or barley.

GNS is called “neutral” because it is tasteless and odorless. RTDs produced with a spirit base are usually better tasting, but the base is more expensive than the others. There are also higher taxes for finished product both at the federal and state level. Is Alcohol A Base Wine is made from fermented grapes or other fruits. Other Than Standard (OTS) Wine is usually wine made from orange peels or grape skins that has gone through the process of filtration and proprietary treatment to have a neutral taste profile. In terms of cost, OTS is the middle of the road option when compared to spirit and malt base.

OTS regulations and taxes also vary widely from state to state. Each of these bases come with different factors that can impact cost of goods sold (COGS), taste, and labeling. For more information on which base is right for your next beverage, call today. To learn about Sugar Brews, an increasingly popular alcohol base taking the RTD world by storm, check out the next part of our series,

Disclaimer : The information in this article is intended to convey general information regarding beverage laws, taxes and compliance and it does not constitute legal advice. This is for informational purposes only, and we strongly encourage you to seek independent legal counsel for advice on specific legal issues.

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Is ethanol a strong base?

The base ethanol in this reaction is a neutral molecule, and therefore a very weak base.

Is wine acid or alkaline?

Understanding acidity in wine – Acids are one of in wine (the others are tannin, alcohol, and sweetness). Acidity gives a wine its tart and sour taste. Fundamentally speaking, all wines lie on the acidic side of the pH spectrum, and most range from 2.5 to about 4.5 pH (7 is neutral).

Does alcohol affect pH balance?

You know that alcohol has an effect on your body—but what about your teeth? In today’s post we discuss how various alcoholic drinks affect the health of your mouth. You might have comforted yourself by saying that an alcoholic beverage isn’t as bad as a soda, but the fact is—it’s pretty close.

The twin problem of mixed drinks, beer and wine is that of sugar and acid content. Any amount of sugar effectively weakens tooth enamel, making teeth and gums vulnerable to decay and infection. Mixed drinks are the worst, typically having exceedingly high sugar levels. This is due to fruit juices or fruit flavored mixers that counter the bitterness of the alcohol.

Wine is a better choice, and beer is the best—when it comes to sugar content. If liquor is your drink of choice, beware of mixing it with anything—even an 8 oz gin & tonic comes to 27 grams of sugar. Acid accelerates tooth decay. The normal pH level of your mouth is 7.14 on a scale of 1-14, with 1 being the most acidic.

  • It’s optimum to maintain a neutral pH balance in your mouth as much as possible.
  • Unfortunately, all alcoholic beverages are acidic in nature, upsetting that balance.
  • To mitigate the negative dental consequences of alcohol, make sure to sip water while you enjoy a drink to stay hydrated, and chew sugarless gum with Xylitol to promote healthy saliva production.

And of course, enjoy alcohol in moderation. Is it time for your teeth to get professionally cleaned ? Contact My Noble Smile today to receive the best dental care in the Katy, Richmond and Fulshear areas. We are proud to serve patients from all nearby communities, including Grayson lakes, Cinco ranch fountain view, Marshal oaks, Woodcreek reserve, Falcon ranch, Fulshear, and Grand lakes.

Is beer an acid or alkali?

The Oxford Companion to Beer Definition of acidity The Oxford Companion to Beer definition of Acidity is a term referring to sour, tangy, or tart flavors derived from organic acids. Technically, acidity is the state of being acid—having the properties of an acid or the extent to which a solution is acid.

See, Acidity relates to the degree of sharpness of the taste of beer. Many organic acids and carbonic acid (carbon dioxide gas), when dissolved in beer, determine the acidity level. Of relevance to the consumer, acidity is detected via taste and can also be determined by titration against a standard base.

When beer is analyzed in a laboratory, the acidity (percentage acid in a sample) is expressed as if all the acidity were present as lactic acid, but this is done for convenience; the acidity figure actually includes any acid present following degassing to eliminate carbon dioxide.

  1. See, Almost all drinks that are considered refreshing and “drinkable” contain some notable acidity as part of a balance against sweet elements.
  2. The total concentration of “acidity” is typically described in the literature as 220–500 parts per million (ppm), adding to the pleasing tartness of beer.
  3. However, this seems rather low, because measurements of 0.1% to 0.3% acidity (expressed as lactic) are typical in beer, which would calculate out to 1000 to 3000 ppm.

All-malt worts produce higher amounts of acidity in beer than do malt-adjunct worts. It is a generally assumed rule of thumb that most typical malt-adjunct beers will show about 0.1% acidity and all-malt beers closer to 0.2%. Light beers can be as low as about 0.07% acidity (or 700 ppm).

  1. Beer is thus slightly acidic, with 100% barley malt lager beers having a pH in the range 4.00–5.00.
  2. Ales vary a little more, typically pH 3.00–6.00.
  3. Sour beer styles such as Belgian lambic, Berliner Weisse, and the new generation of craft-brewed sour ales can get as low as pH 3.30.
  4. Although the acidity level is largely driven by organic acids, the carbonation level also lends to the acidity content of these beer styles.

See, Abnormally high acidity can be an indication of bacterial infection of wort and/or beer. Microbial contamination issues (lactobacillus strains, for example) leading to abnormal acidity are usually perceived by the brewer or consumer before any testing would show the defect.

  1. See, Acidity in beer actually helps protect it because many pathogenic and food-spoilage microorganisms are unable to grow in high-acid (low-pH) environments.
  2. To some extent the acidic nature of beer, along with the carbon dioxide (carbonic acid acidity), lack of oxygen, and the presence of significant amounts of alcohol, has helped make beer a safe, potable beverage throughout history.

See also,, and, Gary Spedding : The Oxford Companion to Beer Definition of acidity

Is alkaline the same as alcohol?

In Organic Chemistry, for the ease of identification and nomenclature, certain functional groups have been identified. One such group is an alcohol group which has one or more hydroxyl group (OH) is connected to the carbon through non-ionic boning, the general formula being R-OH.

  1. So, what is the ph of alcohol? The pH value of alcohol is 7.33.
  2. Alcohol cannot be defined as acidic or alkaline, rather defined as amphiprotic because the nature of the bond between carbon and hydroxyl group is non-ionic but slightly polar in nature.
  3. Aliphatic alcohol acts as a weak acid in presence of any strong base.

Aromatic alcohols behave as weakly acidic at standard conditions because of the resonance allowing kicking off the hydrogen. This pH property allows two cleavages to take place in alcohol, that is R-O bond can also be broken and the O-H bond as well (as it behaves weakly acidic).

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